EaSTE PST Online Training Module 1 Solved Glossary Qaed Punjab


Classroom management

All the skills and techniques the teacher uses to organize and conduct the lesson. This includes basic teaching skills like using classroom equipment, giving instructions, and correcting language errors, but also more personal skills, like building rapport.

Connected speech

This describes the way sounds link together, change or are missed out in speech.


This is a feature of pronunciation which describes how the voice sounds louder and higher-pitched on one or more syllables of a word (word stress) and on certain words in a sentence (sentence stress).


A pronunciation term which describes how words are made of sound units, each of which have a single vowel sound (with or without consonant sounds before/after it). For example, ‘no’ has one syllable, ‘unit’ has two (u/nit), ‘syllable’ has three (sy/lla/ble).


The way the voice rises and falls when we speak. Intonation can affect meaning in English. For example, a higher pitch is often associated with politeness; rising intonation is often used in questions where we are uncertain of the answer.

Reflective teaching

Reflective teaching means looking at what you do in the classroom, thinking about why you do it, and thinking about if it works. It is a process of self-observation and self-evaluation.


The teacher needs to find ways of making learners want to learn. Motivation can come from some kind of reward, like passing an examination, or something quite personal, like having fun.


Fluency in speaking is about how well a learner communicates meaning, and how easily they speak. Compare this with accuracy in speaking, which is about saying things using the correct grammar, vocabulary and pronunciation.

Functional language/Functions

Functions refer to what items of language actually do in a real life situation (or context), as opposed to what they might mean literally. Examples of functions include suggesting, criticising, refusing, agreeing and disagreeing, enquiring, talking about the past, and giving advice.

Word bank (or Useful language)

A set of words or phrases for learners to use in a speaking or writing activity.

Target Language

The language which the learners are practising in the lesson or activity, referred to in the Learning Objectives.


The pre-stage should prepare learners for the communication task. Pre-stages often include some kind of reading or listening.


The while-stage is the conversation task itself.


The post-stage allows learners to get feedback on their performance and may include a conclusion to the task.


Involving an exchange of information between learners


The way in which everyone’s brain works differently. It describes the idea that people experience and interact with the world around them in many different ways; there is no one ‘right’ way of thinking, learning and behaving, and differences are not viewed as deficits.


A set of assessment criteria for different competences (or subskills) at different levels.

GROW model

The GROW model is a four-step system for setting and achieving goals. The name is an acronym of the four steps: Goal, Reality, Obstacles (or Options), and Way Forward (or Will)


The SMART in SMART goals stands for Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Relevant, and Time-Bound. Defining these parameters as they pertain to your goal helps ensure that your objectives are attainable within a certain time frame.

Critical thinking

Using available evidence to make a considered decision.


An activity to warm the learners up, typically at the start of a lesson and involving a lot of movement.

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